A social commentator argues that the welfare programs which were introduced in the mid 1960s have caused an unprecedented expansion of poverty in the United States. Based on the following data from the Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009, would you agree or disagree with this causal statement? Explain.
Identify the independent and dependent variables in the following research projects:
A. A study seeks to find out if listening to rap music causes teenagers to become more violent than their peers who do not listen to rap music.
B. A group of researchers is interested in examining the effects of long-term poverty. They do this by studying subjects’ physiological health and attachment to the workforce.
C. A study finds that self-esteem increases as a consequence of receiving good grades on examinations.